# Advanced configuration for qemu cli

Qemu is a very powerful tool that may be confusing for a lot of people. However when using it we can get some very detailed and custom setups, this page will document some more advanced features that folk may wish to utilize with qemu. The majority of this page will assume running on linux. Many of these will not be compatible with windows. While this guide is oriented towards Android. Many of the same concepts apply to general VM usage.

Many of the concepts on this page will not apply to all users, If you have been linked This document is a document and this warning is still present. Any questions or corrections can be asked and posted on the Bliss OS telegram, Matrix, and Discord groups. Ping @quackdoc @Quack Doc.

This guide is for for qemu's cli. while many concepts still apply, virt-manager/libvirt documentation is being worked on.

# Evdev

One of the more useful and easy to implement features of qemu is evdev passthrough. Doing this can enable low latency and a better by using hotkeys to globally toggle device passthrough.

There are two methods of doing this, we can use virtio-input-host and we can attach evdev to virtio-mouse and virtio-keyboard.Using virtio-input-host will give the guest exclusive access to the device, and will implicitly setup the proper device. This may cause bugs, and is likely not what all users would like, however this might be helpful for unique devices that don't fall under traditional inputs, and won't work with usb passthrough.

virtio-input-host is fairly easy to setup and simply add. It does however come at the detriment that you cannot use a hotkey to bind it back to the host without closing the VM. It accepts both eventx device files, as well as works with by-id paths. However the strength of it comes from being able to use any evdev device. This includes gamepads, some multi-touch screens and more.

The below to add a multi-touch device through to the VM.

-device virtio-input-host,id=touch0,evdev=/dev/input/eventX

A minimal example of this would be

 qemu-system-x86_64 \
 -enable-kvm \
 -M q35 -m 4096 -smp 4 -cpu host \
 -bios /usr/share/ovmf/x64/OVMF.fd \
 -drive file=disks/bliss.qcow2,if=virtio \
 -device virtio-vga-gl -display sdl,gl=on \
 -device virtio-input-host,id=touch0,evdev=/dev/input/eventx

The more common option would be attaching evdev devices to virtio-keyboard and virtio-mouse. This will allow us to toggle back and forth between the guest VM and the host OS. We need to attach the below output to qemu corresponding device ids.

 -object input-linux,id=mouse1,evdev=/dev/input/by-id/MOUSE_NAME
 -object input-linux,id=kbd1,evdev=/dev/input/by-id/KEYBOARD_NAME,grab_all=on,repeat=on

A functional example of this would be

 qemu-system-x86_64 \
 -enable-kvm \
 -M q35 -m 4096 -smp 4 -cpu host \
 -bios /usr/share/ovmf/x64/OVMF.fd \
 -drive file=disks/bliss.qcow2,if=virtio \
 -device virtio-tablet,id-mouse1 \
 -device virtio-keyboard,id=kbd1 \
 -device virtio-vga-gl -display sdl,gl=on \
 -object input-linux,id=mouse1,evdev=/dev/input/by-id/MOUSE_NAME \
 -object input-linux,id=kbd1,evdev=/dev/input/by-id/KEYBOARD_NAME,grab_all=on,repeat=on

By default you can use left and right ctrl together to change whether the device is used by the host or the VM.

# Flexible bash scripting

Some people who add and remove options from qemu often may find that the current script setups are more of a hassle to use. However we can set up scripts using arrays instead this can allow users to comment out arguments from the script without breaking script. This is very useful for prototyping as this allows us to more efficiently test and comment out various arguments. This does however pose some issues which will be explained under the booting a physical install section.


## cd image "bliss.iso"
-M q35
-m 6000
-smp 3
-cpu host
-bios /usr/share/ovmf/x64/OVMF.fd
-drive file=android.qcow2,if=virtio
#-cdrom ~/Downloads/bliss.iso
-device virtio-tablet
-device virtio-keyboard
-device qemu-xhci,id=xhci
-machine vmport=off
-device virtio-vga-gl
-display sdl,gl=on
-net nic,model=virtio-net-pci -net user,hostfwd=tcp::4444-:5555

qemu-system-x86_64 ${array[@]}


You may wish to pass a physical PCIe through to the VM. This can be helpful for people looking to make a gaming setup using Bliss, or perhaps more unique setups. Qemu and Crosvm both allow doing this. With libvirt this is unbinding, and binding is handled mostly automatically. You still need to load the vfio module yourself (see below).

This article will assume you have prepared IOMMU for passthrough, there are many guides on how to find your IOMMU grouping. If you have a bad grouping it is typically possible to override them using ACS override. Be warned, this is a potential security risk and could be dangerous for host security. ACS will not be elaborated any further in this and it is totally an At your own risk solution.

First we need to prepare the device(s) we are going to passthrough, the command to achieve this is below. It requires root being done by root, not simply with root permissions. The easiest way to do this is to use su -c. but first we need the pcie function address and the pcie driver. To get this we can use lspci | grep -i <vendor> to find the function address. We can then use lspci -vvnn -s xx:xx.x to get the pci device driver too. It will be listed under kernel modules: <pci_device_driver>. After that we need to append the domain to it, for the majority of users it will be 0000:. Below is an example command line.

su -c 'echo 0000:<function_address> > /sys/bus/pci/drivers/<pci_device_driver>/unbind' 

After we have unmounted the drive we need to bind to vfio. This is done in a similar manner with the command below, however we need to load the vfio module and use the vid:pid of the device. The VID and PID will be printed in lspci -nn xx:xx.x an example output would, in the case below where the vid and pid would be 8086 56a5 be;

0d:00.0 VGA compatible controller [0300]: Intel Corporation DG2 [Arc A380] [8086:56a5] (rev 05)

Using the above output we would do the below command to bind the DG2 graphics card to VFIO.

If you have multiple GPUs with the same vendor and product IDs, you will need to use same GPU passthrough techniques. Arch wiki's PCI_passthrough page provides a number of possible scripts one can use to make this possible.

This needs to be done for all the devices in the IOMMU group until all of them are bound to VFIO.

sudo modprobe vfio
su -c 'echo 8086 56a5 > /sys/bus/pci/drivers/vfio-pci/new_id"' 

You can instead add this to module autoload using your init system, this can be done various ways such as mkinitcpio and systemd, an example of a systemd setup would be;


After the card is loaded into VFIO we can then load it into qemu using the below argument. The second device is because we need to passthrough any additional function devices separately, this include audio and on some gpus USB controllers.

All devices in the iommu group should too be bound to the VM.

-device vfio-pci,host=<function_address>,multifunction=on,x-vga=on \
-device vfio-pci,host=<function_address>

It may also be necessary to specify the pcie-root-port device. Below is a small example of this

    -device pcie-root-port,id=pcie.1,bus=pcie.0,addr=1c.0,slot=1,chassis=1,multifunction=on \
    -device vfio-pci,host=<function_address>,bus=pcie.1,addr=00.0,x-vga=on,multifunction=on \
    -device vfio-pci,host=<function_address>,bus=pcie.1,addr=00.1

It is a good idea to explicitly disable attaching any other displays to qemu by passing the arguments. This may or may not be needed.

-nographic -vga none

# Booting physical media

Below is an example of booting a physical install where a second drive is mounted to nvme and bliss is installed in the folder called android. However there is a small issue, due to how arrays work under bash, this can complicate how variables and strings work, meaning that sometimes it is better to simply avoid using them in the array, thankfully that does not pose too much issues in the majority of cases.



#common kernel arguments;
#root=/dev/ram0 console=ttyS0 HWC=drm_minigbm GRALLOC=minigbm_arcvm video=800x480 DATA=/dev/vdb quiet DEBUG=2
#'-drive index=0,if=virtio,id=system,file=${install_location}system.efs,format=raw,readonly=on'

    '-smp 4'
    '-M q35'
    '-m 4096'
    '-cpu host'
    '-accel kvm'
    '-device virtio-vga-gl,edid=on'
    '-display sdl,gl=on,show-cursor=true'
    '-audiodev pa,id=snd0'
    '-device AC97,audiodev=snd0'
    '-device virtio-tablet'
    '-device virtio-keyboard'
    '-net nic,model=virtio-net-pci -net user,hostfwd=tcp::4444-:5555'
    '-drive index=0,if=virtio,id=system,file=/nvme/android/system.efs,format=raw,readonly=on'
    '-drive index=0,if=virtio,id=system,file=/nvme/android/data.img,format=raw,readonly=on'
    '-initrd /nvme/android/initrd.img'
    '-kernel /nvme/android/kernel'
    '-monitor stdio'
    #`-serial stdio`
    #'-serial mon:stdio'

qemu-system-x86_64 ${args[@]} \
      -append "root=/dev/ram0 console=ttyS0 HWC=drm_minigbm GRALLOC=minigbm_arcvm DATA=/dev/vdb" 

# USB passthrough

In qemu, there are three main ways to achieve USB passthrough. Spice, VFIO and usb-host. When using usb-host we can passthrough either a hub device or a specific usb device. I have typically had poor experience using hub passthrough in the past so I would recommend preferring single device passthrough.

The most simple way to do this is typically the best, simply run lsusb and grab the VID:PID of the device you wish to passthrough, Then use -device usb-host to add it to the VM.

Instead of simply adding -usb we can add specific controllers instead, an example would be.

    -device qemu-xhci \
    -device usb-host,vendorid=0xVID,productid=0xPID,id=$SOMETHINGHERE

In some cases it might be more suitable to attach the device using it's address;

    -usb \
    -device usb-host,hostbus=bus,hostaddr=addr

In other cases you can use the below command to passthrough via hostbus and host port, which is useful for passing through usb hubs. Finding the appropriate hub or device can be done using lsusb -t

    -usb \
    -device usb-host,hostbus=bus,hostport=port

It is always a good idea to append an appropriate ID to the device, in case of a keyboard, simply do id=keyboard in the case of a thumbdrive, you can do id=usb-drive. This is largely preference.

For using Spice,

It will be explained in more depth below, however in the spice client you will need to enable usb-passthrough and select the appropriate device there.


Simply pass the appropriate USB controller through to the VM using vfio above. Using lsusb -t to locate the controller and lspci can be useful for determining what devices to passthrough.

USB devices can be hotplugged using the Qemu Human Monitor explained below.

# Low latency PipeWire/Jack audio

Using qemu, we can instead of using pulse audio backend, use jack. This is very useful since we can use jack for higher quality and lower latency audio, as well as a highly configurable two way audio. This is great because Bliss and other Android x86 operating systems have a quite high base latency.

Using jack you can manage to cut a round trip from 240ms to 200ms. It's important to remember that this is a Round Trip numbers, meaning the time it takes from audio to go from the host to the virtualized microphone, into Android, to the speakers, and back to the host. This is not the android -> host latency, currently this is not something tested. however it could be anywhere from 1/3 of this to 2/3 of this. This will assume using PipeWire since it is the easiest and most convenient option.

Using jack_lsp to list ports we can connect to the ports I am interested are


Family 17h (Models 00h-0fh) HD Audio Controller Analog Stereo:playback_FL
Family 17h (Models 00h-0fh) HD Audio Controller Analog Stereo:playback_FR

Realtek Audio USB Analog Stereo:capture_FL
Realtek Audio USB Analog Stereo:capture_FR

qemu uses regex to match, so here we want to choose a name that will match the devices we want, but not the extras

  -audiodev jack,id=jack0,out.connect-ports=Family,in.connect-ports=USB \
  -device ich9-intel-hda -device hda-duplex,audiodev=jack0

If you remove the out.connect-ports=Family,in.connect-ports=USB part of the command line, it will create an output not connected to anything. In this case you could either manually connect ports using helvum or PipeWire direcly, or you could setup a WirePlumber profile to handle automatic connections. however this is far out of scope

We can also do a bit more tuning by setting PIPEWIRE_LATENCY When we do this, we can actually ignore the output qemu tells us when it starts as if we check pw-top we can see that it is indeed running when we check pw-top

export PIPEWIRE_LATENCY=128/48000

However jack is not the only options we have, we also have Alsa output. this is about as direct as you can get automatically outputs to headphones and microphone properly, and is still controlled via PipeWire. however audio quality of it can be greatly dependant on the host PC. so while not recommended you can try it by using -audiodev alsa,id=alsa0 instead of -audiodev jack,id=jack0...

Testing SDL audio output is fine, but is higher latency than Jack so it would be typically not recommended.

As for the emulated audio devices, AC97 is the lowest latency, but may suffer in audio quality. There are multiple other audio devices however at this time I do not have a method for testing latency in them. The recommendation for low latency audio is AC97 but for general use it is -device ich9-intel-hda -device hda-duplex.

This open the doors to advanced audio manipulation and high quality audio from Android. This can be useful for gaming as well as game recording since you could connect to a virtual device which could then be connected to both headphones and OBS.

This also opens the way for high fidelity audio though it is currently not recommended to go above 48000 hz on bliss at this time due to potential audio distorting.

# EGL-headless for remote VMs

Egl headless is useful for remote VMs. A remote VM being a virtual machine hosted on a separate machine that the user is connecting from. Much like -display sdl,gl=on or -display spice,gl=on this provides 3D acceleration. However unlike the two previous, this does not open a window on the server. This means you can use spice-app to connect to the VM over a network. It may also have lower preformance then the alternative.

You can use rendernode= to specify the GPU, this can be helpful to select a secondary GPU, or perhaps if you have many VMs running at the same time to spread the load across multiple GPUs.

-display egl-headless,rendernode=/dev/dri/renderD128

Note: you can not at the current time use multiple -display arguments, so you will need either spice server, or some other remote graphics solution. (IE. scrcpy)

# Spice

Spice is a method of interacting with VMs that can work both locally and over a network. It supports relatively advanced features such as usb redirection, video compression, and more. There are two ways to add spice to the VM, one for local machine, and one for remote machine. Below is an example of a local machine.

    -device virtio-vga-gl -display spice-app,gl=on -device ac97 \
    -device virtio-serial -chardev spicevmc,id=vdagent,debug=0,name=vdagent \
    -device virtserialport,chardev=vdagent,name=com.redhat.spice.0 \

And below this is an example of a remote machine. It's important to remember to setup firewall and/or port forwarding to allow remote connections.

    -spice port=3001,disable-ticketing -device ac97 -device virtio-vga-gl -display egl-headless \
    -device virtio-serial -chardev spicevmc,id=vdagent,debug=0,name=vdagent \
    -device virtserialport,chardev=vdagent,name=com.redhat.spice.0 \

To setup usb redirection you can copy the below block into your config. For each device you want to be able to redirect, you need to add a chardev device and a usb-redir slot. These will let you dynamically change what devices you want to passthrough.

#redirect up to 3 devices
    -chardev spicevmc,name=usbredir,id=usbredirchardev1 \
    -device usb-redir,chardev=usbredirchardev1,id=usbredirdev1 \
    -chardev spicevmc,name=usbredir,id=usbredirchardev2 \
    -device usb-redir,chardev=usbredirchardev2,id=usbredirdev2 \
    -chardev spicevmc,name=usbredir,id=usbredirchardev3 \
    -device usb-redir,chardev=usbredirchardev3,id=usbredirdev3


# Human Monitor

Instead of connecting tty to the terminal, we can also connect Qemu Human Monitor to the terminal. This is an interface that allows us to send commands to a running VM in order to interact with it. We can send shutdown and reset signals, add and remove usb and storage devices. As well as more advanced features like resize disks, dump the framebuffer (a sort of over glorified screenshot) and create VM snapshots. It is a very powerful tool and only some of the more common uses will be outlined here.

First thing is to add it to the VM. While with bliss it might be common to use -serial stdio, that will conflict with using qemu human monitor, what we instead want to use is -monitor stdio. If you need both, we can use -serial mon:stdio which will multiplex the serial connection and the qemu human monitor. You can swap between the two using CTRL + a then press c. That will swap between the serial and the human monitor.

When using spice, the human monitor will already be attached to it, so do not add commands to attach human monitor to qemu itself.

The other option you have is to connect either the serial connection or the monitor connection to a socket, then interfacing with it over said socket. However most people will likely not use this route. It is therefore recommended to simply use;

-serial mon:stdio

However a short list of examples alternatives are below, there are more options.

-monitor tcp:,server,nowait #tcp session
-monitor telnet:,server,nowait #telnet session
-monitor unix:qemu-monitor-socket,server,nowait #unix socket

Now that we have the human monitor attached to the VM, we can get to some of the commands we can do with it. Below will be some commands with a brief writeup, to learn more about how to use the command read the link below;

system_reset #reboot the system
system_powerdown #powerdown the system
sendkey # sendkey ctrl-alt-f1 #send specific keys to the VM

quit # quit the VM
stop # pause the VM # may cause bugs on resume
cont # continue the VM
system_wakeup # wake VM

device_add #usb-host,hostbus=2,hostport=1.2.2,id=idofyourdevice # Add device
device_del #<idofyourdevice> #delete device
drive_add # add pci drive 
netdev_add # add nic
change #ide1-cd0 /path/to/some.iso #change device config

info #subcommand (snapshot to view snapshots) #print info about device 
savevm #creates a snapshot live, while the VM is still running
loadvm #loads a snapshot while the VM is still running

mouse_move #move the mouse
screendump #screenshot.ppm # dump screen into ppm image


# Disk Optimization

There is a LOT we can do for disk optimization! This section will be as condensed as possible while still giving you a good idea at what these features are doing. Because of this do not expect this section to be as clear as the other sections.Because there is a lot we need to cover here.

NOTE: If you want to run many VMs off of a single drive, or an array, your considerations may be very different and some of these will not apply for you! This section is written based on the assumption that one, or maybe a couple VMs are being run on the computer.

# Qcow2 vs raw image

When it comes to whether or not you should use qcow2 vs raw image, this really comes down to what you as a user want out of the images. First talking about performance. Raw vs Qcow2, under normal circumstances, should typically have similar performance. However, Qcow2 can certainly be slow under the right (or perhaps better put wrong) circumstances.

If you want a simple answer to the question "Which format will give me the best performance?'' The answer is a raw image. If you don't want any advanced features or configuration like compression or snapshots, you can skip the rest of the disk section.

# Preallocation

Preallocation is put simply, how the VM decides to assign storage blocks when no data is actually inside of them. with preallocation=none no data is pre assigned. this means that the disk image is very small, and will grow as more data gets written to it. when you choose metadata it pre allocates space for metadata, this means an empty VM disk will take up more space then one with none.

In most cases, the user will probably just want metadata. as it gives the best performance to space and features. falloc and full preallocation will cause the VM to use up more space. however in accordance with the chart below, performance goes up when you go down the chain. But you do start to lose some features, as full will cause snapshots to no longer work.


# Compression

Using compression to save space on your image can be a very valuable tool. while there are multiple ways to do this, but the focus of this will be on using qemu-img's qcow2 compression, you can simply run qemu-img create -f qcow2 -o compression_type=zstd disk.qcow2 10G and this will create a zstd compressed disk image for you to use.

# Cache Modes

Qemu supports a variety of disk write cache modes. These cache modes can be changed to tweak I/O speed below are the ones qemu support, See the link below for an explanation on these. Using none will essentially be the best performance option.



# Custom cache size

With qemu we can set both cache size and l2 cache size


...disk.qcow2,l2-cache-size=4M where 1M is good for 8Gb of random R/W. Areasize / (clustersize / 8) where default cluster size is 64kb. and area size is the total ammount of space you want cache to cover. 1/8th of 64kb is a nice 8kb.

In this example we can say we want 16gb of r/w headroom, we do 16gb / 8kb. An easier way to calculate this by hand would be scientific notation. This would be 32x10^9 / 8x10^3 = 4x10^6 = 4mb

1KB = 10^3
1MB = 10^6
1GB = 10^9
1PB = 10^12

Try increasing cluster size instead qemu-img create -f qcow2 -o cluster_size=2M.

Try mixing 2m cluster and metadata for a good blend of preformance!

# Backups and snapshots

Utilizing snapshots is a key feature in doing development, as well as making sure that any downtime is minimal. This is particularly useful for preventing a corruption inside of the machine from causing a re-install.

There are two main ways of doing this, you can create a full backup of the drive. This is as simple as doing rclone. This does however waste a lot of space. What we can do instead is use qemu-snapshot.

Qemu-snapshot redirects the writes to a new image, so that you can save space. say you have disk.qcow2 you can run the command qemu-img create -f qcow2 -b disk.qcow2 disk-snap1.qcow2 and that will create a new image. Now you modify qemu to use disk-snap1.qcow2 it will read from disk.qcow2 but will never write to it. All modifications made are made in disk-snap1.qcow2. and to revert the snapshot, you can simply delete the disk-snap1.qcow2.

Another use of this is to do qemu-img create -f qcow2 -b base.qcow2 vm1.qcow2 && qemu-img create -f qcow2 -b base.qcow2 vm2.qcow2. by making two separate snapshots, we can now run multiple VMs each with their own unique writable disk, that is based on the base.qcow2. this is great for running multiple VMs without needing to waste space and setup time. REMEMBER writing to the base disk will corrupt the snapshots. It's a wise idea to change the permissions of the base disk to read only, this prevents user error. Even professionals with many hours can slip up and accidentally make an error. Remember to practice safe VM handling.

The above paragraph is about creating external snapshots which is great for when the VM is off, and should be done when you wish to create a new VM. However qemu also supports internal snapshots and live snapshots. The snapshots work internally in the single qcow2 (or qed) image. It may not be as flexible, however it is bother faster, and for many people more convenient and nice to use internal snapshots.

Using the human monitor above it is shown the commands savevm loadvm info snapshots these can be used to save, load and view the current snapshots available. Live snapshots save the entire state of the cpu, devices, Ram, as well as the entire disk contents, so the live snapshots can be a good amount larger. It is very akin to using an emulator "save state".

Removable devices can sometimes cause issues, so it's preferred to disconnect any before taking a snapshot and before loading one. However as long as all the devices are there when the snapshot is made and loaded it will be fine.

# full device passthrough

For passing storage devices to qemu there are multiple ways of doing so. To pass a sata controller, the most typical way of doing this will be via pci passthrough. You can accomplish this with the vfio instructions listed previously.

As for Nvme devices, you can actually do something similar, you can use vfio, however a better way of doing it would be to actually use qemu's built in functionality for this listed below

qemu-system-x86_64 -drive file=nvme://HOST:BUS:SLOT.FUNC/NAMESPACE

You can also passthrough raw block devices or better known as partition passthrough. you can pass it through a lot like you could with a standard file, an example is given below

    -drive file=/dev/sdb2,if=none,id=drive-virtio-disk0,format=raw \
    -device virtio-blk-pci,scsi=off,drive=drive-virtio-disk0,id=virtio-disk0

# IoThread

IO threads can help both raw and qcow2 when using virtio drives

-object iothread,id=iothread0
-device virtio-blk-pci,iothread=iothread0,id=...
-device virtio-scsi-pci,iothread=iothread0,id=...

# EroFS to SFS and the other way around.

Bliss is currently shipping with SquashFS or EroFS. EroFS has the best raw read speed of the supported read only filesystems. however it has a significant compromise in being the compression. EroFS only supports LZMA and LZ4 compression. LZMA is quite slow, and LZ4 doesn't offer great compression ratios.

So there are two reasons why you would want to recompress system.img using SquashFS or EroFS. The first one being wanting to simply shrink the the size of system.img.

if you have an eroFS image and want to compress it further, you may want to convert it to an SquashFS image. Likewise, if you have an SFS image, you might be better suited to convert it to EroFS if you want better performance if you are willing to sacrifice a bit of storage space.

sudo modprobe erofs # Many distros will ship EroFS but it won't be enabled by default
sudo mount -o loop system.efs /mnt 
mksquashfs /mnt system.sfs -comp zstd # you can choose from a couple different formats but ZSTD is the main benefit here
sudo umount /mnt
rm system.efs

If you wanted to keep using EroFS but use the slower but best in class compression LZMA, you could use the below sample.

sudo modprobe erofs
mv system.efs system-old.efs
sudo mount -o loop system-old.efs
mkfs.erofs -c xz system.efs /mnt
sudo umount /mnt
rm system-old.efs

# Q&A about qemu's drives

Q: `virtio-blk` vs `virtio-scsi`
A: `Virtio-blk` is usually faster across the board, however is limited in the amount of drives, probably not an issue for most
Q: what is the best `Cache` mode to use?
A: you typically want `cache=none`
Q: My VM has terrible write speeds, and it is even effecting my host
A: check if you are using a COW fs. if so disable COW on btrfs and other COW systems for the VM
Q: `lazy_refcounts` Can cause corruption! but is it worth it?
A: Typically yes. performance can increase by a good amount at the trade off of accidental power off. But disable it if you change the `cache` mode to `none`.


# Finishing Notes

Handling multiple VMs efficiently can be a complicated topic, and is largely out of scope for this guide. This bit is just a few tips to make running more than a couple VMs a better experience. This would be a stopgap between a more professional solution such as proxmox or a libvirt. This is just a rough guideline, and may not apply across the board or when you scale up.

When installing Bliss, It might be a good idea to break up the Disks, you only need one system disks for the VMs if it's read only. This can save many gigabytes of data storage, and increase storage performance across the storage of any potentially affected drives.

Another good idea is to consider what VMs need persistent memory and which ones don't. If you are running many VMs at once, whether it be for a cloud solution or a more tailored setup, you may find that you don't want many, or even any of the VMs to retain any modifications to them.

It is highly recommend reading the free redhat docs on setting up and tuning VMs if you need more than what this guide offers. It will be a lot of reading. It will however be more valuable than most resources you can freely find on the internet. It should be the first stop for anyone wanting to actually learn more and implement these kinds of setups for yourself.

The next freely accessible resource is the oVirt forums, documentation, and most importantly Mailing list. oVirt is an enterprise grade solution built upon libvirt so many of the solutions and concepts will directly apply when using libvirt, and can be used to gain a further understanding of VM infrastructure in general.